Reasons to Avoid Using Class 5 Copper Conductor Wires for Fixed Wiring in India
Fixed wiring, also known as conduit wiring or house wiring, is commonly used in residential, industrial, and commercial applications in India. The use of copper wires with class 5 conductor has become prevalent due to its lower cost compared to copper wires with class 2 conductor. However, this type of wiring can pose serious risks to buildings as it increases the disconnection time of protective devices and leads to higher power loss, contradicting the principles of energy conservation and sustainability. It is important to note that class 5 copper conductors do not comply with wiring codes and are therefore illegal to use in fixed wiring. Class 5 wires are primarily designed for appliance and panel wiring, while class 2 wires offer better flexibility, superior technical performance, and higher mechanical strength. International standards recommend the use of class 2 conductors for building wiring due to their lower resistance and reduced heat generation. In comparison, class 5 conductors have higher conductor resistance, thinner insulation, and lower mechanical strength, which can lead to issues during conduit pull. The use of class 2 conductors not only ensures lower losses and increased sustainability but also improves safety by reducing the disconnection time of protective devices. It is recommended that electrical designers specify class 2 copper conductors for fixed wiring applications in tenders. Authorities and government departments, such as the Electrical Inspectorates and establishments like IGBC and BEE, should enforce the ban on the use of class 5 copper conductors in high-rise buildings, hospitals, industrial, and commercial establishments. Class 2 wires should be made mandatory for “CERTIFIED GREEN BUILDINGS” to promote energy efficiency and safety.
Full Article: Reasons to Avoid Using Class 5 Copper Conductor Wires for Fixed Wiring in India
Title: The Importance of Class 2 Copper Conductors in Fixed Wiring
In India, fixed wiring for residential, industrial, and commercial buildings commonly use copper wires with class 5 copper conductors. These wires are cheaper compared to those with class 2 conductors, making them a popular choice. However, the use of class 5 copper conductors can pose risks to buildings as it increases the disconnection time of protective devices due to higher resistance. Additionally, class 5 conductors result in higher power loss, contradicting energy conservation principles. It is important to note that wiring with class 5 copper conductors is illegal and does not conform to wiring code practices.
The Evolution of Conductor Wires
Before 1920, cables, including house wires, were imported into India from England. These cables consisted of single solid conductors known as class 1 conductors, which had insulation. However, advancements were necessary, leading to the introduction of stranded conductors. Stranded conductors can be divided into two types: multi-strand conductors (class 2) and flexible stranded conductors (class 5). Class 2 conductors replaced the use of single solid conductors, offering better flexibility and resistance against hot spots at bends. Class 5 conductors, on the other hand, are preferred for connections to portable appliances and equipment due to their ease of handling and installation in confined areas.
Class 2 Vs. Class 5 Copper Conductors
For fixed housing wires, it is recommended to use cables with multi-strand conductors (class 2). Here is a comparison to understand why class 2 conductors have an edge over class 5 conductors:
1. Conductor Resistance: Class 5 conductors have higher resistance compared to class 2 conductors, resulting in different levels of heat generated for the same current loading.
2. Insulation Thickness: Class 5 conductors have lesser insulation thickness than specified for class 2, making them unsuitable for higher load conditions.
3. Mechanical Strength: Insulation for class 5 conductors has lower mechanical strength compared to class 2, potentially leading to issues during conduit pull.
Energy Loss Vs. Payback
Calculations suggest that the payback period for using class 2 conductors, despite being more expensive, is less than 3 years. This makes them a more cost-effective and energy-efficient choice in the long run.
In fixed wiring applications, it is crucial to use conductors with class 2 copper. Electrical designers should specify this requirement in tenders. Class 5 wires pose problems such as higher watt loss, voltage drop, and fault loop impedance, which can lead to accidents due to longer disconnection times of protective devices. Class 2 copper conductors produce less heat and offer greater sustainability and safety. Class 2 wires are widely used internationally for house wiring, while class 5 wires are used in India primarily due to their reduced cost.
To ensure safety and energy efficiency, authorities such as Electrical Inspectorates of state governments, CPWD, PWD, etc., should ban the use of class 5 copper conductors in fixed wiring for high-rise buildings, hospitals, and industrial and commercial establishments. Organizations like IGBC and BEE should make class 2 wires mandatory for “CERTIFIED GREEN BUILDINGS”. Embracing class 2 copper conductors promotes a safer and more sustainable approach to fixed wiring in India.
Summary: Reasons to Avoid Using Class 5 Copper Conductor Wires for Fixed Wiring in India
In India, fixed wiring commonly uses copper wires with class 5 conductor due to its lower cost compared to class 2 conductor. However, this type of wiring can lead to issues such as increased disconnection time and higher power loss, contradicting energy conservation and sustainability principles. The use of class 5 conductors does not comply with the code of practice and is therefore illegal for fixed wiring. Class 2 conductors, on the other hand, offer better flexibility, resistance, and current carrying capacity. It is recommended to use class 2 copper conductors for fixed housing wires to ensure lower resistance, higher mechanical strength, and safer electrical installations. The payback period for using class 2 conductors is less than 3 years, making it a more sustainable and cost-effective choice. Authorities, government departments, and organizations promoting green buildings should enforce the use of class 2 wires to ensure safety and energy efficiency.
Frequently Asked Questions:
Frequently Asked Questions: Why wires with Class 5 copper conductor shall not be used in India for fixed wiring
Q: What is Class 5 copper conductor?
A: Class 5 copper conductor refers to a specific type of copper wire used in electrical installations. It is made up of multiple strands of copper that are tightly twisted together to provide flexibility and durability. This type of conductor is commonly used in applications where flexibility is required, such as in cables and cords.
Q: Why are wires with Class 5 copper conductor not recommended for fixed wiring in India?
A: Wires with Class 5 copper conductor are not recommended for fixed wiring in India due to several reasons:
- Electrical Safety: Class 5 copper conductors are designed for flexible applications and may not provide adequate safety for fixed wiring. They have a higher risk of heat buildup and can result in electrical accidents, including short circuits and fires.
- Stability: Fixed wiring requires a stable and secure connection to ensure proper electrical conductivity. Class 5 copper conductors, with their multiple strands, are more prone to loosening or developing loose connections over time. This can lead to voltage drops and unreliable electrical supply.
- Regulatory Compliance: The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has established standards and guidelines for fixed wiring in India. These guidelines recommend the use of wires with solid or stranded conductors, which provide better stability and durability compared to Class 5 copper conductors.
- Longevity: Fixed wiring is expected to last for many years without the need for frequent maintenance or replacement. Class 5 copper conductors, due to their flexible nature, may not withstand the wear and tear that fixed wiring is subjected to over time. This can result in frequent failures and the need for repairs.
Q: Can Class 5 copper conductors be used for any electrical applications in India?
A: Yes, Class 5 copper conductors can still be used for various electrical applications in India, such as temporary connections, portable appliances, and extension cords. However, it is important to ensure that the specific requirements and safety regulations for those applications are followed to minimize any potential risks.
Q: What are the recommended types of conductors for fixed wiring in India?
A: The recommended types of conductors for fixed wiring in India include:
- Solid copper conductors: These conductors are made of a single strand of copper and provide high stability and durability for fixed wiring applications.
- Stranded copper conductors: These conductors consist of multiple strands of copper twisted together. They offer enhanced flexibility while still maintaining good stability for fixed wiring.
- Aluminum conductors: In some cases, aluminum conductors may be used for fixed wiring. However, it’s important to note that aluminum conducts electricity differently than copper, so appropriate connectors and techniques should be used to ensure reliable connections.
Always consult with a qualified electrician or follow the guidelines provided by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) to ensure the appropriate type of conductor is used for fixed wiring in India.